A new study clarifies how the earth formed and why it can sustain life, and hints that the same process may be repeated elsewhere in the galaxy.
We already know that there are two types of planets in the solar system: very large planets made of natural gas, such as Jupiter and Saturn, and smaller planets made of metal and rock, such as Earth or Mars. In the case of the earth, most of the internal space is made of, for example, nickel and iron.
Although gaseous planets are formed at the same time as stars, they are not enough mass to “glow”, but it is not clear how small, rocky planets like the Earth were formed. This is important because it can provide us with clues as to whether other stars have terrestrial planets, so they can sustain life.
A group of scientists from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark and Lund, Switzerland believe that the Earth, Mars and Venus are all formed by the accumulation of millimeter-sized pebbles. His research shows that the total amount of water and carbon on the earth may come from these pebbles that gathered together during the birth of the planet.This The research has been published in the scientific journal “Science Advances”.
After the star exploded, the gas, dust and stones that were once the star still existed around it. The cosmic dust cloud has been compacted again for millions of years. The gas eventually formed the core of natural gas giant planets and ice giants.
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The heavier elements form a disk orbiting the nova. This kind of space top is called a protoplanetary disk.
As time passed, these tiny stones joined together due to gravity, forming larger fragments. The larger fragments eventually form an earth planet, and the crust is mainly composed of silicates, minerals that make up rocks, and metal cores. In our solar system, we have four: Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars.
How terrestrial planets are formed
So far, some studies believe that Jupiter, the gas giant of the solar system, prevents solids such as ice from transporting into the solar system, separating its interior and exterior, as we see today. The interior is composed of four rocky planets in the hottest region, and the exterior is composed of the farthest and coldest region, the gas giant in the middle, and the ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune on the outside.
The speed at which the pebbles are added determines whether the result is a larger planet or a smaller planet, or a gaseous state, different consistency of ice or silicate.
Why is there only life on earth
Researchers at the universities of Sweden and Denmark have calculated the speed of planet formation in computer simulations. In this way, they discovered that the small pebbles that make up the protoplanets consist of 10% to 35% ice, and these asteroids have the same mass as the moon that later grew to become a planet.
According to the researchers, 1% of the current mass of the earth is made up of pebbles and ice and carbon particles. In the next five million years, the earth continued to grow to its current size.
Ice will enter the earth’s magma and evaporate, turning into a vapor atmosphere. In turn, this will cause the first surface water mass on Earth: the ocean.
Based on this research, their model can fully predict how much carbon the earth is estimated to contain, including some carbon that resides in the core. Carbon and water are the basic elements of life development.
Interestingly, the same process that produced this planet could have been repeated in other stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies, which means that life can appear on other planets.
We will have more answers to future space telescopes (such as James Webb), which were supposed to launch on March 10, but were delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Your image will bring us closer to planets outside the solar system.