Australian stingless bees will be groomed according to complex patterns without the need for prior planning or global coordination with other worker bees. This is the conclusion of a study led by the Spanish, which showed that when these insects are added to crystals, they follow the same mathematical rules as atoms or molecules.
An international team of scientists composed of the Andalusian Institute of Earth Sciences (IACT), the Advanced Scientific Research Council (CSIC) and the Joint Center of the University of Granada has unveiled the mystery of one of them for the first time. confidential Nature without a convincing explanation: what mathematical model follows bee Make you perfect honeycomb.
Researchers, their results have been published in the journal Royal Society Interface JournalGive examples of the applicability of mathematics to nature Australian stingless bee (Four leaf clover) Build their combs according to complex patterns without prior planning or global coordination with other worker bees.
According to their results, when bees are added to insects, they comb through the same mathematical rules as atoms or molecules. crystal.In this way, the honeycomb forms a trapezoidal pattern identical to the trapezoidal pattern observed in minerals, such as Mother-of-pearl from mollusk shells.
“The honeycomb Anthracis Presents a pattern that may be surprising Spiral, Double helix or target shape”, they explained Bruno Escribano Salazar with Antonio J. Osuna Mascaró, The two IACT researchers who participated in this study.
So far, it is known that worker bees build honeycombs by adding new cells at the end of each layer of honeycombs, but there is no convincing explanation for how these Australian insects form these complex patterns. Scientists report: “In the past, people thought that it might be necessary to use chemical signals for some kind of coordination and communication between workers.”
Without prior planning
In addition to IACT, this research jointly conducted by scientists from the University of Cambridge and the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna made it possible to develop a new IACT. mathematical model This explains how honeybees achieve these modes without prior planning or global coordination.
By examining the structure and sequence that appear in the comb, the researchers found the smallest complexity model, indicating that each bee only needs information about its nearest environment. With this minimal information, each worker can contribute to growth without the need for teamwork or superior intelligence.Therefore, the observed pattern is Phenomenon, This is the result of the local behavior of the workers.
Experts simplified the model to only two parameters: (R) the typical size of bees and (α) random terms related to the variability of honeycomb cells. By fine-tuning these parameters, the model is able to generate all the patterns observed in the honeycomb.
“We know that bumblebees learn by observing others; the author points out that the behavior of bees is affected by their emotional state, or they can even handle concepts such as “same” and “different.” There is also evidence of intelligence when building a comb. They emphasized: “They solved the accidental construction problem and solved it in a flexible way, which shows that they are not just acting intuitively. ”
But they also have a series of “rigid” behaviors, simple and inherent behaviors that make the configuration unit work.
In the bee colony, these innate behaviors allow a kind of ShameMany people can produce complex phenomena by simply taking simple actions without them having to make a master plan.
The researchers pointed out: “Bees coordinate their actions by changing the environment. They don’t need a master plan. In this case, they don’t even need to communicate!” Just modify your environment locally, self-organization is almost everywhere. They pointed out: “The structure we describe here is the result of emerging phenomena. It is not an overall plan, but the result of simple cumulative actions.”
The same model (with different parameters) has previously been used for micro-scale crystal growth. By these same researchers. Therefore, although the two systems are very different, the same pattern appears due to the same self-organizing rules.
Silvana SS Cardoso, Janyan HE Cartwright, Antonio G. Checa, Bruno Escribano Escribano, Antonio J. Osuna Mascaro (Antonio J. “The bee Tetragonula makes a comb like a crystal” Royal Society Interface Journal July 2020 Volume 17 (168) https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2020.0187