From May 10 to September 30, the number of people infected by Covid-19 in Spain There were 533,857, 52% of them women. Likewise, according to data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE), of this total, 5% have been hospitalized, 0.4% have needed ICU and 0.7% have died.
Although this body does not offer data disaggregated by age groups and sex, the European Center for Disease Prevention and Controlthat weekly collects the information from the component countries of the EU and the United Kingdom, which allows us to observe in which age groups and in which sex the coronavirus acts with the most lethality.
As seen in the upper population pyramid, which includes all those affected by coronavirus in the last week (between September 25 and October 1), the largest group is that of women between 50 and 59 years old. Behind, again, women from 40 to 49 and from 20 to 29.
The greatest disparity between men and women occurs among those over 80, a range in which 60% of infections occur in women.
The phenomenon has also been documented by RENAVE, which ensures that the collective of women «over 89 years old» are «overrepresented».
They are also the most numerous among mild cases of the disease, representing 54% of all those cases. Again, those between 50 and 59 years old are the most numerous group. From behind, females between 40 and 49. Especially striking is the disparity in the data that exists between women over 80 years of age slightly affected by the disease, since in that age group they triple the men.
As the disease progresses in virulence, it is observed how the pyramid is inverted and it is after 50 years when the coronavirus begins to become more present.
Also, among the hospitalized, they represent only 44% of all patients who needed this type of care. In fact, hospitalized men nearly double the number of women in the 60-69 age bracket.
In all the other bands, they are more numerous, with the exception of those between 20-29 and those over 80, where despite the fact that they are more numerous, there is hardly any difference (the male-female ratio stands at 0, 9).
In severe cases of coronavirus the differences are even more latent. They account for 70% of all these cases, even reaching, as between 50 and 69 years, almost tripling the number of females.
In all age groups men significantly outperform women, only among those over 80 there is greater parity since at that time men report 53% of serious cases.
In the pyramid of the deceased, the age group corresponding to those over 80 stands out especially. According to the data provided by the ECDC, of those who fell ill with coronavirus, 29% died. A percentage that decreases as we reduce the age, thus between 70 and 79 years the percentage of deceased falls to 18% and between 60 and 69 it falls to 5%.
If they are the ones who suffer the disease most severely, of course, they are also the ones who die the most. However, the difference by sex in terms of deaths is not as marked as in serious cases. Thus, the percentage of deaths registered by men is 56%.
Between 50 and 69 they even triple the number of women. However, after the age of 80, the difference between men and women is drastically reduced and it is women who represent the largest group of deceased.
Differences in virus infection by sex have been documented in several reports. The last, published by Nature and developed by the Yale University Department of Immunobiology, says that men over 60 could be up to twice as likely to become seriously ill or even die than women their age.
According to the report, women generate a response, “T”, immunological, much faster and maintained with age, something that they attribute to their ability to gestation and to protect the baby against various pathogens.