The global pharmaceutical industry has been struggling in recent months to finally get the vaccine that will end the coronavirus pandemic that has swept the entire planet.
The candidates are nine. The BBC has produced a report where it collects what are the strengths and weaknesses of each of them.
BNT162 (Pfizer and BioNTech) – USA and Germany
Strengths: it is one of the most advanced. It is also a genetic vaccine, which makes it easier to produce.
Weaknesses: It requires conservation at -70 ºC, which makes its management and distribution difficult, especially in warmer countries.
mRNA-1273 (Moderna) – EE UU
Strengths: testing reveals few adverse effects and generates a strong immune response. It can be stored at less than 20ºC.
Weaknesses: is more late. The manufacturer has to wait for 150 events (that is, 150 participants infected with Covid-19) to conclude with its results.
AZD1222 (University of Oxford and AstraZeneca) – United Kingdom
Strengths: good test results for immunological response and adverse effects. Original proposal, from adenovirus.
Weaknesses: The effectiveness rate is still unknown and the temperatures at which it should be stored are not known.
CoronaVac (Sinovac) – China
Strengths: reliability. It works with inactivated viruses, a method that has been proven for years. Low cooling requirements.
Weaknesses: is late. Its effectiveness rate is unknown and it has not yet reached the minimum number of events.
Sputnik V (Gamalaya Center for Research in Epidemiology and Microbiology) – Russia
Strengths: High effectiveness and tests in a high number of volunteers. Does not require freezing.
Weaknesses: few information. Clinical trials not registered or published in any scientific journal.
JNJ-78436735 (Johnson & Johnson) – EE UU
Strengths: Only one application of the vaccine would be necessary, instead of two like its competitors, which would mean a lot of savings.
Weaknesses: is late. There are no results yet on preliminary analyzes.
NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax) – EE UU
Strengths: develops the vaccine from a small fragment of Sars-CoV-2 capable of activating an immune response.
Weaknesses: Your results will take longer than the rest to come out. Phase III will start in January or February.
Ad5-nCoV (CanSino) – China
Strengths: Emergency approved for military use in China.
Weaknesses: little information. No immunity or efficacy data.
Covaxin (Bharat Biotech) – India
Strengths: works with inactivated viruses, a method that has been proven for years.
Weaknesses: it is more expensive and there is still much information to collect.