The star located only 215 million light-years away from Earth has undergone an extreme elongation process while being sucked into a huge black hole. Telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile and other parts of the world have detected this rare phenomenon.
A team of astronomers discovered an exploding light explosion, the star being torn apart by a supermassive black hole in the spiral galaxy of the constellation Eridanus.
Rare phenomenon, called event Tidal destruction And lead to the “star’s pasta”, which is the closest pasta of its kind recorded so far. It happened at a distance of only 215 million light-years from the earth.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) and telescopes of other organizations around the world have conducted unprecedented detailed studies on it.This research was published today in Monthly Bulletin of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The idea of a black hole’attracting’ a nearby star sounds like science fiction. He claimed that this was exactly what happened during the tidal destruction event. Matt NichollHe is a professor of the Royal Astronomical Society at the University of Birmingham, and the lead author of this new study.
But these tidal destruction events are rare and not always easy to study. In these events, stars experience so-called spaghetti when they are sucked into a black hole.
In order to study in detail what happens when starlight is swallowed by this monster, the goal of the research team is VLT (Very large telescope) y al NTT ESO’s new technology telescope is facing a new flash called AT2019qiz, which occurred near a supermassive black hole last year.
Astronomers know what will happen theoretically. “When an unfortunate star wanders too close to the hole in the center of the galaxy, its extremely strong gravitational pull tears the star apart, peeling off the fine material flow.” explained the co-author. Thomas Weavers, ESO researcher.
Bright flare detection
During the spaghetti processing, as some tiny chains of stars fall into the black hole, astronomers can detect the release of bright energy. Despite their powerful capabilities, until now, they have struggled to investigate these light bursts because they are often obscured by dust and debris. Now, they have been able to better understand how it was formed.
He explained: “We found that when a black hole swallows a star, it can emit a powerful shock wave of matter outward, which hinders our sight.” Samantha Oates, Also from the University of Birmingham. This happens because the energy released when the black hole enters the stellar matter pushes debris from the star outward.
This discovery is possible because the tidal destruction of AT2019qiz occurred shortly after the star broke.
He said: “In fact, because we discovered it early, when a black hole emits a powerful jet of matter up to 10,000 km/s, we can see the formation of dust and debris.” Kate Alexander, NASA postdoctoral researcher at Northwestern University.
He added: “This kind of’behind the scenes’-is our first opportunity to determine the source of the concealed material and track the way it wraps the black hole in real time.”
In six months, the luminosity of the torch gradually increased and then gradually disappeared. The research team observed the torch. AT2019qiz.
Weavers said: “Several sounds detected the emission of new tidal damage shortly after the star broke. We immediately pointed a set of ground and space telescopes in that direction to observe how the light was produced.”
In the following months, several observations were made on the event, including X-shooter and EFOSC2 instruments installed in Chile’s VLT and NTT.
Rapid observations and extensive observations of ultraviolet light, optical range, X-rays and radio waves have revealed for the first time a direct connection between the matter produced by stars and the bright flashes swallowed by holes.
Nicoll said: “The data show that the mass of this star is about the same as our own sun, and the huge black hole (more than a million times the mass) caused it to lose about half of its mass.”
The possibility of tidal destruction “Rosetta Stone”
According to the authors, this research helps us better understand the behavior of supermassive black holes and matter in the extreme gravitational environment surrounding black holes. The team said that AT2019qiz can even act as a “rosetta stone” to explain future observations of tidal disturbance events.
ESO’s Very Large Telescope (ELT) is expected to start operation this decade, and it will soon enable researchers to discover weaker and rapidly evolving tidal destruction events, thereby solving more black hole mysteries in physics.
M.Nicholl et al. “The optical ascent of the nearby fast-developing tidal destruction event AT2019qiz provides power for the outflow.” Monthly Bulletin of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2020.oi: 10.1093 / mnras / staa2824