In the twelve-month pandemic, have we learned to use new terms well to convey information about covid-19? Medical translation expert Fernando Navarro (Fernando Navarro) has solved some of the most complex problems when talking about and writing knowledge about epidemiology.
In the first part of this podium, we have seen seven common questions. When we have to write information about epidemics, we ask ourselves: “Viruses and diseases”. “COVID-19 or covid-19?”; “Covid-19: what is its pronunciation?”; “Is he hevid or covid-19?”; “Coronavirus or coronavirus?”; «Moral and lethality» with”Herd immunity». The following is the complete Corona Language Question:
Immunity, immunity, immunity and immunity
These four adjectives are correct in Spanish, but each adjective has its own semantic field, and we should not confuse it: Immune It means “immunity, some diseases do not have immunity”; Immune, “Has immunity or is related to this”; Immunological, “Immunology (science involving the study of immunity) or related to it”; and immunity, “Immunity”.
Therefore, we will talk about “immune children” and “immune mice”, but talk about “immune response” and “autoimmune diseases”, “immunological testing” and “immunological progress”, or “immune serum” and “Immunization vaccine”.It doesn’t make much sense to call immune systemAs “even among doctors” often see, “immune system” (because there is no at all) or “immune system” (because the immune system already exists in nature before the birth of immunology; in fact, even in the first This immune system has existed for a long time before it was born) primitive people).
Of course, due to the pressure of English, this does not actually prevent this situation. Immune-In Spanish, RAE admitted in 1992 that the improper use of “immunization” with the meaning of “immunization” has become widespread.
Respirator and Respirator They are not the same
We call it in Spanish fan Equipment with rotating blades that can mobilize the air in the room, usually refresh the environment or renew the thin air; that is, they usually say in English fan.Very different from English Ventilator: An artificial ventilator used in the intensive care unit for invasive mechanical ventilation of intubated patients; this is what we call Respirator.
It is also very different from the English they speak Respirator,this is ours Breathing mask Ø Filter mask (Also called “respiratory protective mask” or “self-filtering mask”): A mask that prevents the passage of small particles (pollutants, toxins, gases, microorganisms, etc.), usually used as part of a complete personal protective equipment. For example, the European standard FFP2 and FFP3 masks, or the American standard N95 mask and the Chinese standard NK95.
In addition, in Spanish, we also refer to “masks” as Medical and surgical masks Ordinary and ordinary, it can only prevent droplets from passing through, but not self-infection, and avoid contaminating the surgical area or the patients in front of us.On the other hand, in English, they clearly distinguish Respirator From the previous paragraph, you are mask Ø Face mask It’s normal.
Masks and masks
Speaking of masks, English is actually a language that does not use supplementary words and lowercase words as vocabulary resources. On the other hand, in Spanish, they are not only very rich, but also very expressive: lagrimón, vidorra, pelazo, chicarrón, gafotas; lagrimón, vidorra, pelazo, chicarrón, gafotas. Yogurt, cigarettes, muscle, baby, table.
In medicine, English does not allow to distinguish between syringes (for example, ear, nose and throat syringes used for ear washing) and syringes (for example, insulin syringes with hypodermic needles), because both are called “syringes” and ” syringe”. syringe.The difference between the two is the same mask (A large mask that covers and protects the entire face: eyes, nose and mouth) and Face mask (Small mask covering only the nose and mouth).
For us, the difference between the gas mask worn by the NBC protection team during the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and the gas mask worn on the street during the pandemic is very obvious.On the other hand, in English, both are mask.
A work environment with preventive measures can prevent the spread of covid-19. / PNG
Social alienation or physical alienation?
In the absence of vaccines and special treatments, the main measures to slow or curb the spread of the coronavirus until Christmas last year were mainly to try to reduce or limit social interaction as much as possible and to maintain a distance of two meters between people.
Given that this safe distance is only suitable for social interaction, not for family or professional fields (anesthesiologists, hairdressers, elderly assistants still maintain the same distance as before even if they use PPE), many people from Social isolation (English Social isolation).Others think it should be said Physical distance (English Physical distance), because even if people are separated from each other, they must maintain social contact.
This Reco Fundéu on May 7, 2020 Brings the following definitions: physical distance: the distance between people is greater or smaller; social distancing: the degree of isolation of a person in their society”. Therefore, I am afraid they do not make things more complicated. No. One definition confuses the concepts of “distance” (the space between two things, usually in meters, which is a unit of length) and “distance” (the effect of increasing or maintaining distance), and “physical distance” “(Between two objects, such as a table and a chair) and “interpersonal distance” (between two people).
The second one confuses the concept of “social distancing” (already commented), and Social isolation (For example, in the case of certain elderly, disabled people, people living alone, victims of domestic violence, etc., involuntary lack of social contact with other people); Social withdrawal (Or relevance): voluntary social isolation due to refusing to get along with others; for example, in the difficult period of adolescence, stubborn human inadequacy or mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression.
There are other languages besides RAE
Each new reality carries specific words, and anyone who wants to describe, comment or connect with others should know and use these words. Logically, the covid-19 pandemic has victimized thousands of people. Pfizer’s BioNTech and Moderna vaccines encapsulate mRNA in lipid nanoparticles; AstraZeneca’s adenovirus vector; the upcoming Novavax protein subunit. Well, “nanoparticle”, “adenovirus” and “subunit” are three words that RAE has not yet recognized: “they don’t exist”, some doctors came to tell me.
Faced with a lot of technical knowledge and Covidian new words, the surprising fact is that many professional doctors, medical translators and science journalists turn to RAE dictionaries for guidance, which is obviously not a reference place for technical or professional languages.
Can you believe that at this point in 2021, the RAE dictionary does not yet include blood pressure, biopsy, biosimilars, heart health, cytotoxicity, copayment, epigenome, glucocorticoids, pigmentation, immunomodulators, Interleukin, intraoperative, fat-soluble, micro-rupture and other terms. , Multiple organs, rodents, nolott, omeprazole, osmotic pressure, multiple drugs, sex, chemotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, laugh therapy, remote surgery, single room and Wenzhuolin?
This is what happened later. For example, in March 2020, when the pandemic was announced, we caught us with the word “coronavirus” in Spanish, but it was still not included. Spanish dictionary (DLE).On the album Asterix in Italy (Published in 2017) The invincible Gaul competed with a masked character nicknamed “Coronavirus” in a huge crossover chariot race, which shows that the word is already on the street. Of course, if you consider that in 2002, due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, coronaviruses made headlines around the world, and in 2010, they were caused by the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic.
Since the covid-19 pandemic has been announced, it took more than six months for RAE to enter “coronavirus” into its regulatory dictionary. On November 24, the electronic version of DLE 23.4 was released online. Other pandemic terms were also released: biosafety, coronavirus, COVID, quarantine, quarantine, downgrade, infectious disease, seroconversion, seroprevalence. But there are many others (if not more, but often) still not there. We read information about hydroalcoholic gel dispensers, peripheral closure devices or the need to vaccinate health care workers as soon as possible; however, the use of “water alcohol”, “peripheral” and “social hygiene” is still not allowed; current terminology can also be used Say it like “anti-vaccine”, “self-isolation”, “conspiracy”, “EPI”, “FFP2”, “vaccination”, “reanalysis”, “remote work” and “animal diseases”. ‘.
Fortunately, in addition to RAE, there are specialized language and terminology resources.For the pandemic coronavirus, I especially recommend Covid-19 English-Spanish Glossary, Free online consultation. Thanks to the cooperation between the Cosnautas Medical Language Professional Resource Platform and the International Association of Medical and Allied Scientific Translators (Tremédica), more than 6,000 terms have been registered for this vocabulary expression, and it is still growing.
Fernando Navarro He is an expert in the field of clinical pharmacology, but soon he put on a phone mirror and a white coat to make a living as a text doctor. A medical translator with more than 30 years of experience. Since 2006, he has been responsible for “Language laboratory“At Medical diary.