Scientists at HSE University in Russia are the first to analyze the correlation between HLA-1 genotype (important for the immune response to any viral infection) and the severity of the disease caused by the new coronavirus.
This immunity The secretion of T cells is one of the mechanisms by which the human body resists viral infection.In fact, the starting point for the development of cellular immunity is Viral peptide On the surface of infected cells.Then activation T lymphocytes, Which begins to eliminate “disease” cells.
Researchers from HSE University Experts in Russia detailed how to give this immune response to SARS-CoV-2 It depends largely on genetics. In human cells, it is the class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA-1) molecule that is responsible. Six of these molecules are unique in each person and are inherited from their parents.
HLA-1 genotype is an important factor in the immune response to any type of viral infection.In our work, we show that individuals with a specific HLA genotype are more likely to have covid-19 grave. Similarly, there are some’strong’ genotypes that are rarely associated with the serious course of the disease,” he explained to SINC. Stepan Nersisyan, One of the authors of this work, published in Frontiers of Immunology.
Use machine learning (Machine learning) The team has established a model that can comprehensively evaluate the potential efficacy of T cells in the immune response to COVID-19: whether the allele pool [versiones del gen] HLA-1 can effectively present SARS-CoV-2 viral peptides. Those with lower risk scores, while those with less expressiveness have higher risk scores.
In order to validate the model, the genotypes of 100 patients with COVID-19 and 400 healthy people as the control group were analyzed. Experts have found that the simulated risk score is “very effective in predicting the severity of the disease.”
In addition to analyzing the population of Moscow, the researchers also used their model to Patient at Ramóny Cajal Hospital in Madrid (Spain). They pointed out: “This independent sample also confirms the high accuracy of the prediction: the risk scores of patients with severe covid-19 are significantly higher than those of patients with moderate and mild disease.”
The risk score (vertical axis) recommended by the researchers was much higher in the group of patients with severe COVID-19 (a sample of patients from Moscow). / S. Nersisyan et al.
Other applications of the model
Researchers say that in addition to finding a correlation between the genotype and severity of the disease, this new method can also help assess how certain mutations in covid-19 will affect the development of T cell immunity against the virus. .
He emphasized: “For example, we will be able to discover a new SARS-CoV-2 strain infection that can cause more severe disease in patient groups.” Alexander Tonevitski, Another author.
For his part, Stepan Nersisyan added that in the event of a possible shortage of vaccines, “people who know the risk of HLA genotypes may give priority to this population for vaccination”. Nersisyan concluded: “Finally, knowing your at-risk groups can motivate people to maintain more responsible social distancing, wear masks and do other things to be safer.”
Maxim Shkurnikov, Stepan Nersisyan, Tatjana Jankevic, Alexei Galatenko, Ivan Gordeev, Valery Vechorko and Alexander Tonevitsky. “The association between HLA class I genotype and the severity of coronavirus disease -19”. positive.Immune alcohol., February 23, 2021|