Two scientific teams from Australia and the Netherlands have established a quantum computing platform whose temperature is 15 times higher than the current operating temperature of Google or IBM. For the first time, they managed to control a qubit in silicon above Kelvin, which represented a breakthrough in the development of larger and more powerful processors.
This Qubit or qubit The bits (similar to classical calculations) can be generated by superconducting circuits (such as IBM and Google) or in semiconductors (such as silicon).
In both cases, the platform that creates the platform needs to be cooled to a very low temperature, because thermal vibrations can change the qubit and prevent normal operation. The operating temperature of these equipment is usually about 0.1 Kelvin (-273.05 degrees Celsius), which requires very expensive refrigeration equipment.
But now, two independent teams of researchers from Australia and the Netherlands have proposed a new platform that can use the spin of electrons in silicon to generate qubits. This is the first time they have passed The temperature is higher than 1 Kelvin.These two works will be published in the magazine this week natural.
According to its author, increasing the operating temperature above one Kelvin means Important milestoneAs cooling costs are reduced and efficiency is improved, it is beneficial to introduce electronic devices to control qubits. They believe this is the first step towards a future processor with millions of qubits.
In addition, the use of silicon-based quantum platforms allows better integration with conventional chips, which also use this material, and will need to control quantum processors.
The lead professor of one of the papers said: “Our results paved the way from experimental equipment to affordable quantum computers for real-world commercial and government applications.” Andrew Dzurak From the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney.
His team has developed a prototype quantum processor on a silicon chip with an operating temperature of 1.5 Kelvin, which is 15 times higher than the temperature used by competing technologies developed by companies such as. Google E IBM Corporation There is superconducting elbow.
Dzurak explained: “It’s still cold, but it can be achieved with only a few thousand dollars of refrigeration, instead of the millions of dollars required to cool the chip to 0.1 Kelvin.” Every day temperature, but this increase is in the quantum world Middle is extreme. “
The researcher’s team introduced their research results in a preprinted academic document in February 2019, and then in October 2019, a former postdoctoral researcher from the Dzurak research group led the research group from the Netherlands. Mennon WidhorstAnnounced similar results and new developments using the same Australian technology.
Veldhorst is the lead author of the second article in “Science” magazine naturalFrom QuTech (Netherlands cooperation between Delft University of Technology and TNO), and Intel, The report stated that they have been able to perform calculations using two qubits of silicon at a temperature of 1.1 Kelvin.
Veldhorst emphasized: “This is the first time we have demonstrated’hot’, dense and coherent qubits, that is, we are talking about compact qubits, which have high-quality performance at relatively high temperatures. Applications practice”.
These researchers are now working on a system that contains more and more qubits and better quality. The idea is to integrate quantum and classical hardware on a single chip.
Veldhorst predicted how the field will develop in the next few years: “In 2015, we introduced two verifiable qubits in silicon for the first time. Now, by 2020, we have completed the same at actual temperature. A feat. In five years, we may already have a quantum integrated circuit. This will be a big step towards the quantum computer of the future.”
Researchers from the Menno Veldhorst team in the Netherlands are in action. / QuTech’s Wouterslitsfotografie.
Such as Dzurak et al.: “Operation of a silicon quantum processor unit cell above Kelvin“; M. Veldhorst et al.:”Universal quantum logic in thermal silicon qubits“. natural, April 16, 2020.