A long-term observational study found that participants exposed to PM2.5 particulate matter were more likely to develop the disease by 8%, and exposure to nitric oxide and nitric oxide was related to changes in the structure of the retina. If this finding is confirmed, the author believes that new treatments can be considered.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main causes of macular degeneration blindness In developed countries, it is the main group of people over the age of 50. The disease affects about 200 million people worldwide, Expected to reach 288 million By 2040.
This Risk factors Known for AMD is Ageing, This smokes And genetic makeup.Now the research is published in British Journal of Ophthalmology Also found the relationship between Pollution The atmosphere and the risk of developing this type of blindness, this blindness is gradual and irreversible.
If they confirm this link, they can consider New treatments and preventive measures The researchers say that for this kind of blindness. He told SINC that patients who tend to develop AMD “can try to avoid the most polluted areas or wear protective masks, and institutions can legislate to reduce these pollution. Paul FosterIs one of the authors of the Ophthalmology Epidemiology Study of the Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London (UCL)in England.
According to experts, it is currently possible to control this stable disease by “injecting drugs into the eye” and vitamin supplements “to prevent degeneration or affect the other eye”.
Observational research from 115,954 people From the database British Biobank. At the beginning of the study, in 2006, the participants were between 40 and 69 years old and had no visual impairment. Therefore, this study requires volunteers to report any diagnosis of such blindness by doctors.At the same time, the researchers used CT scans to assess Structural changes in the retina In 52,602 people, the thickness and number of photoreceptors (which can indicate AMD).
On the other hand, work collection Air pollution measurement In the postal address of the participant: PM2.5 particles, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pcs) And nitrogen oxides (NOX).These values are determined by Small Regional Health Statistics Office Public health in the UK.
total 1,286 people (About 1%) were diagnosed with this pathology. Among the participants who received retinal scans, 75% of confirmed cases of macular degeneration had shown signs of the disease on CT scans.
after research factor Research data shows that the factors that may affect the onset of this disease (including the environment and lifestyle) are related to the exposure of PM2.5 particles. 8% increase in risk Develop this pathology. Other pollution particles (NO2 pcs And notX)connected to Rebuild In the structure of the retina.
The link between pollution and AMD
This is not the first study linking pollution to macular degeneration.Foster said there are already Research on pollutants Atmosphere (no2 pcs And carbon monoxide (CO) and traffic And increase the risk of the disease.
The author explains that as an observational study, “we cannot establish a Determined reasonThey added: “But these results are consistent with those found elsewhere in the world. “
In this sense, they believe that air pollution can be linked to AMD in the following ways: Oxidative stress or inflammation. They concluded: “The relationship between pollution and the thickness of the retinal layer suggests that as exposure increases, cells may become more fragile and the risk of macular degeneration also increases.”
Chua SYL, Warwick A, Peto T, etc. “The relationship between environmental air pollution and age-related macular degeneration and retinal thickness in the UK Biobank”. British Journal of Ophthalmology. DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316218