The vaccine against covid-19 approved in Europe is the result of decades of research and development and well-known technology. Researchers say that no one will interfere with human DNA.
This First approved vaccine Fighting COVID-19 in Europe-Pfizer/BioNTech, Modern, AstraZeneca/Oxford, USA ÿ Jensen-They are also the first of their kind: there are almost no precedents for other products manufactured using the same technology.They are vaccines made of the following materials Nucleic Acid,molecular ADN Ø ARN.on This infographic Basic introduction to its operation and differences.
Unlike traditional vaccines, they do not contain any live microorganisms-or fragments of them-so they are unlikely to cause the diseases that were originally intended to be prevented.
However, these new vaccines have raised another concern: The DNA or RNA they contain will somehow interfere with the DNA of vaccine recipients. Experts agree that this risk does not exist.
DNA, RNA and protein
DNA is a molecule made up of genes. Genes have the information necessary to construct thousands of different proteins that work in the organism. The DNA of each organism is unique and exists in all its cells. In humans, it is located in the nucleus of every cell.
For RNA, its function (in very basic terms) is to take the information in DNA from the nucleus and translate it into protein.The translation process from RNA to protein takes place in the cellular environment outside the nucleus, the so-called Cytoplasm Cell.
DNA and RNA molecules can be constructed chemically in the laboratory. The approved vaccines against COVID-19 are RNA (vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTtech and Moderna) or DNA (vaccines from AstraZeneca and Janssen). They contain partial laboratory copies of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus DNA or RNA.Especially the area where the protein S is ordered, which is used by the virus as wrench Enter the body cells.
When someone is vaccinated, their cells begin to produce the viral protein S. Your immune system will detect it, find it is foreign, and develop defenses against it.
The great news since the beginning of the pandemic is that this has indeed happened. This is not obvious at all. Although the idea of preparing a nucleic acid vaccine was proposed as early as the 1990s, its development must overcome major obstacles. So much so that Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are the first RNA vaccines ever used, and in terms of DNA vaccines-AstraZeneca and Janssen-there is only one precedent for humans , The Ebola vaccine approved in 2020.
Why did the company that chose it in the pandemic as a technology that has never been used before? One reason is that it is a well-researched technology. In the last few decades, research groups around the world have obtained a large amount of evidence that the chances of success are reasonable.
But there are more reasons. Nucleic acid vaccines are produced faster than traditional vaccines, and their formulations are relatively easy to adapt to possible mutations in the virus.
In theory, they are also safer vaccines. Classical vaccines contain weakened viruses or fragments thereof. Because the virus is attenuated, it does not cause disease, but the overall risk is small. In DNA and RNA vaccines, this possibility does not exist.
There is also no risk of interaction between the DNA or RNA of the vaccine and the DNA of the person receiving the vaccine.
We first analyze the situation of RNA vaccines, which are composed of such molecules encased in tiny fat sacs-Margaret LiuIt is the pioneer of this vaccine and has compared them with the sugar-coated chocolate (RNA) dragee (fat). The RNA enters the human cell, but does not enter the nucleus, which is the nucleus where the DNA of the vaccinated person is located.
After the vaccine is injected, the macrophages (a type of defense cell) near the puncture site ingest the fat-encapsulated RNA. The cellular machinery in the cytoplasm of macrophages converts RNA information into protein, so these cells can now produce S virus protein and place it on its outer membrane to display it outside.
He explained in the report: “This will cause a defensive response in the body, just like a response to protect us from the natural infection of SARS-CoV-2.” Magazine website New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) Paul Sachs, Is an infectious disease expert at Harvard Medical School.
“The cellular enzymes then degrade the RNA that has been introduced in the vaccine. No live virus is involved in the process, and no genetic material enters the nucleus of human cells. Although these are the first RNA vaccines used clinically, scientists have been studying them for many years. .
Viruses like Lego trucks
AstraZeneca vaccine is a human-safe chimpanzee cold virus in which SARS-CoV-2 protein S DNA has been added. In this case, when a person receives the vaccine, the DNA does enter the nucleus, “but it will never integrate with human DNA,” he explained. Santiago Elena, CSIC researcher at the Institute of System Integration Biology (CSIC-UV).
“When the vaccine’s DNA enters the nucleus, the nuclear machinery will recognize it and start transcribing it into RNA, which happens,” Elena added. “This is the same as the production process of the attenuated virus vaccine against smallpox since the 18th century: the vaccine virus uses a nuclear mechanism to produce messenger RNA, and thus produces its messenger RNA in the cytoplasm, but it does not interact with human DNA.”
In fact, a vaccine virus is a set of genetic commands. Researchers assemble them one by one in the laboratory, knowing what everyone does: It’s like making a truck with Lego blocks: you can put it on the truck if you need to. Load more or fewer parts, if you don’t just leave the tractor… we can control what we do,” Elena said.
A few days later, the vaccine DNA is broken down and cleared from the cells, but the human immune system has seen the protein S of the coronavirus and will act as a defense against it.