Current treatments for multiple sclerosis can cause immunosuppression and side effects, such as an increased risk of infection. A new study in mice shows how messenger RNA vaccines (such as those used for covid-19) can delay the onset of disease and reduce the severity of the disease.
This Multiple sclerosis Is a kind of influence Central Nervous System. Among them, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin sheath) covering nerve fibers and causes communication problems between the brain and other parts of the body. Over time, pathology can cause permanent damage or deterioration of nerves.
Although certain treatments can help speed up recovery from attacks, change the course of the disease, and control symptoms, they can also cause Immunosuppressive And many side effects, such as increasing the risk of infection.
In recent decades, experts have conducted research Various methods,include antigen Carry out autoimmunity through the use of DNA, synthetic peptides, recombinant proteins, coated nanoparticles or immunomodulatory cell therapy. However, the results are negative or uncertain in humans.
Now the researchers are from Biological Technology with Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz, Germany) designed a Messenger RNA vaccine (MRNA)-For example, a German company Coronavirus disease-Delay the onset of disease and reduce the severity of diseases similar to multiple sclerosis mouse.
The preclinical results of the vaccine show that it restores the body’s tolerance to its own protein and suppresses the characteristic hyperimmune response of the disease. This is the main goal of the therapy for autoimmune diseases. For the author, this represents an improvement over other treatment methods.
As in Articles published in the magazine scienceThe strategy consists of lipid nanoparticles containing modified and purified mRNA that encodes disease-related autoantigens. These are usually triggers for autoimmune reactions.
A method of personalized treatment
In his experiments on rodents Autoimmune encephalomyelitis (An animal model for multiple sclerosis in humans), scientists have found that the vaccine can prevent symptomatic diseases, or slow the progression and restore motor function in mice with early disease.
Therefore, the infiltration of pro-inflammatory effector cells (Teff) in the brain and spinal cord and the demyelination of the latter are greatly reduced. These effects are achieved through the development of disease-suppressing regulatory T cells (Treg) targeting mRNA vaccine-encoded antigens.
In addition, pre-clinical vaccine candidates cannot suppress functional immune responses to other non-myelin-related antigens (such as antigens in influenza vaccines), thus solving one of the main problems of this type of treatment. inhibition.
The author emphasizes the potential of mRNA to treat potentially very complex and rare autoimmune diseases. They concluded: “The ability to rapidly produce mRNA vaccines encoding individual self-antigens may be a way to create personalized therapies in autoimmune pathology.”
Christina Krienke et al.: A non-inflammatory mRNA vaccine for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. science 2021: Volume 371, Issue 6525, Pages 145-153 DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3638