Opening. Two anti-malaria vaccines have been tested, one of which has shown an unparalleled 77% efficacy in trials in Africa.
TNow, we are full of hope for the unprecedented results obtained with the R21/Matrix-M vaccine candidate. This is indeed the first way to achieve the 75% efficiency target set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Oxford University pointed this out. Oxford University is a developer and has cooperated with Novavax in the United States on the project.Published in a scientific journal Lancet, Professor Adrian Hill, director of the Jenner Institute at Oxford University, commented: “These new results place high hopes on the potential of this vaccine.” Size precision: This is also the anti-Covid vaccine developed by AstraZeneca. source. This anti-malarial serum can be approved within two years. While Covid-19 monopolizes most of the attention and resources, it opens up broad prospects for the fight against malaria.
Covid-19 and malaria, double punishment on the African continent
In order to fully understand the importance of these results obtained by candidate vaccines, it should be known that, for example, this mosquito-borne parasitic disease killed more than 400,000 people worldwide in 2019. Two-thirds of the victims are children under 5 years of age. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), among the vast majority of cases worldwide, approximately 94% of 229 million infections and deaths occurred in Africa. In contrast, in the year since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic (April 23), the number of deaths recorded in Africa was 119,639, lower than that of malaria, and the continent paid a much higher price.
Therefore, according to a phase II clinical trial conducted on 450 children aged 5 to 17 months in Burkina Faso in 2019, the Oxford University vaccine showed 77% efficacy in people receiving high-dose adjuvants. The population receiving high-dose adjuvants showed 71% efficacy with lower doses. No serious side effects were observed. Agence France-Presse said it has begun recruiting 4,800 children in four African countries to enter the final stages of clinical trials.
In addition to its performance, the vaccine also has the advantage of being able to be produced on a large scale and at low cost. Adrian Hill clarified that it has also established a partnership with the Serum Institute of India (SII), which has produced the anti-Covid vaccine Oxford-AstraZeneca, “at least 200 million doses will be produced every year in the next few years.” .
Malaria killed another 400,000 people worldwide in 2019
As another vaccine of Oxford’s R21/Matrix-M vaccine, it was developed by the British giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). As part of a pilot program initiated by the WHO in 2019, it has been sent to Malawi, Approximately 650,000 children in Ghana and Kenya were vaccinated. . S, is a vaccine against the parasite Plasmodium falciparum transmitted by mosquitoes. This parasite is the deadliest and most common parasite in Africa. So far, two years after the start of the world’s first comprehensive test, 1.7 million vaccines have been vaccinated, prompting Kate O’Brien, Director of the Department of Immunization and Vaccines at WHO, said: “Ghana, Kenya Studies in Malawi and Malawi have shown that the existing child immunization platforms can provide effective malaria vaccines for children, some of whom cannot obtain insecticide-treated mosquito nets or other measures to prevent malaria.” He added: “This vaccine will take four doses until about 2 years old. This may be the key to making malaria prevention more equitable and saving more lives.”
Having said that, it turns out that GlaxoSmithKline’s RTS.S is less effective than Oxford’s rival R21/Matrix-M. It only prevented four out of ten malaria cases and three out of ten serious life-threatening malaria. However, because this vaccine, together with other protective measures, can save thousands of lives every year, this does not stop the World Health Organization from congratulating it on its progress in fighting the disease. According to Agence France-Presse, its experts will decide in October whether to recommend a wider use of serum worldwide. This decision will concretely reflect the new wishes of the United Nations organization, namely, a new initiative launched this Wednesday before World Malaria Day in 2025, to eliminate malaria in another 25 countries by 2025.
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The goal of WHO through the E-2025 initiative is to support the elimination of malaria in home countries. Specifically, 8 new countries have joined the list of 17 countries in the previous campaign, but the disease has not yet been successfully eradicated. These countries are Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Dominican Republic, North Korea, Thailand, Vanuatu and an African country: Sao Tome and Principe. As a reminder, the 17 countries already on the list are South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Cape Verde, Comoros, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Eswatini, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, South Korea , Iran, Suriname and East Timor are encouraging signs: some of them no longer report local cases of malaria, but simply have not applied for the official certificate of malaria-free countries issued by the World Health Organization. Based on what criteria are these countries selected? The main reasons are as follows: First, these countries have formulated malaria control plans. Then, they have officials responsible for implementing the plan; in the end, their number of cases did not exceed 5,000 in 2019. As a reminder, the number of new infections last year was approximately 229 million people, which has remained relatively stable for the past four years.
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At this level, it is important to explain the success achieved in the fight against malaria. AFP spokesman Dr. Pedro Alonso said: “First of all, there must be a country with political will to stop this endemic disease.” For him, “countries that have successfully eradicated the disease usually have a solid and unified health system that can be prevented and treated”. The WHO added: “Reliable data and community commitment are also necessary factors in the fight against this disease.” Today’s result: According to the World Health Organization, 87 countries around the world are affected by malaria. Of these, 46 countries reported fewer than 10,000 cases in 2019, compared with 26 countries in 2000. By the end of 2020, 24 countries had successfully interrupted the spread of malaria for three years or more, and a total of 11 countries had been declared malaria-free countries.
Malaria: The vaccine is getting closer