In his recent article The structure of drug trafficking organizations and money laundering activities: risk tolerance hypothesis, Political scientist Cecilia Farfan analysis Financial operations The drug trafficking organizations in Nana State, Arellano Felix, La Familia Michocanana, and Los Zetas, and studied how these Mexican organizations They ransacked money from illegal sources. More specifically, what legal activities they involve and what elements they consider.
Farfán is the research leader of the Security Program at the American Mexico Research Center at the University of California, San Diego, and an affiliated researcher of the Security, Intelligence and Governance Research Center of the Mexico-Mexico Technology and Technology Center in Mexico.
The work of political scientists shows us the view that money laundering is rarely studied.It stands out because it is open to the public Specific money laundering methods It was only recently known in the US courts. In theory, it also makes an important contribution by providing a way to better understand the following. Behavior and decision Drug Trafficking Organization (OTD).
The author proposes Two decisive variables Understand the OTD decision:
This view shows that the money laundering method used by MTO is not the result of personal will.This pair Public policy design focusing on money laundering. As Farfán has shown, every criminal organization is different: “It is impossible to have a strategy for global money laundering activities. It is necessary to start to understand the size of each organization, and a key variable is to know them in advance. The level of risk that will be tolerated.”, he wrote on the paper.
Farfán distinguishes two types of forms used by criminal organizations: Hierarchy and network structure. The reason he calls the former like this is not because they have only one leader to concentrate knowledge and make all decisions.Their main feature is that they are Collect information about employees And their training.
In addition, each type of structure Determine certain behaviors, Including the level of “risk tolerance” during money laundering. Here, Farfán focuses on his research.
The author explains that the hierarchical organization “is Information collection is very effective Your employees (who they are, punctual, well done, employees who need to be chased). The hierarchical structure reduces transaction costs. On the other hand, in network organizations, They hired you because of your expertise: They will not train you, they will not teach you, then you will be easier to be replaced.”
The difference in the way the human capital of criminal organizations is formed also makes it different in their tolerance for risk: “If an employee is killed or arrested, the network structure is not that important. But. The hierarchical structure has a low tolerance for the risk of losing someone They are difficult to train,” the researcher said.
In other words, organizations that invest a lot of money, time and training at different levels of the management structure will tend to Be more cautious when laundering money, Because if your employees are arrested or killed, dismissal will bring high costs to the organization.
According to Farfán’s article, Sinaloa State Organization and Brother Arellano Felix They operate this way, Because they are layered. In contrast, organizations with a network structure, Familia Michoacana and Los Zetas, are much more risky.
In 2010, Attorney General of the Republic of Mexico (PGR) The alleged Michoacan family member Money laundering by Music concert at the local market In Mexico and the United States. According to Farfán, this is a method of risk tolerance.
Public records analyzed by the author (based on documents from PGR/SIEDO/UEIDCS/018/2010) condemned the organization Music group hired Play in the United States. What has aroused the suspicion of North American authorities is that although the average cost of these concerts is 50,000 US dollars, the group represented by the organization still signed. Contract half a million.After the band returned to Mexico, the band I carry cash, After paying taxes in the United States.
The article details the agreement between OTD and the music group This is an unstable strategy. After the group becomes famous, it does not need the funds of the organization, Seek independence from organized crime. However, this is actually impossible because, as recorded in recent decades, when musicians try to sever ties with the organization that executes them, this relationship is impossible.This is the case with band singers Sergio Gomez (K-Paz de la Sierra), Was found dead in 2007.
According to a judicial investigation reviewed by Farfán, one of the main managers of the Michoacán family, Nazario Moreno, has the alias “el Chayo” or “the craziest.” Accused of ordering murder Gomez.The singer’s body shows Torture and severe burns In the genital area.