April 26, 1986, Chernobyl Power Plant (Ukraine) Exploded during a safety test.This nuclear accident, together with the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, is the most serious accident in nuclear history and caused 30 direct victims and deaths over thirty years Caused by the Radioactive aftermath disaster.
Although in the past few years, there are still many questions about how the incident affected the survivors and their children.So far, several studies have been studying Genetic risk of offspring, But the result is not yet conclusive.
Now, the journal has published two studies science Analyze the impact of ionizing radiationIt is a potential carcinogen. It has experienced events that shocked the world in these generations and changed a region forever.Achieved results, thanks to Whole Genome Sequencing In the analysis sample.
“Since the occurrence of the atomic disaster, scientific issues regarding the effects of radiation on human health have been studied. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, They grew up again due to the nuclear accident after the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima (Japan) tsunami. “He explained to SINC Stephen CharnockHead of the Department of Epidemiology and Genetics in the United States National Cancer Institute de EE UU.
As some animal studies have shown, the first article led by his team is about whether radiation exposure causes genetic changes that can be passed on from parents to children.The good news is that no evidence of this has been found, that is to say, the children whose parents were exposed to radiation in 1986 No too many germline mutations.
The authors said: “This is one of the first studies to evaluate changes in mutation rates caused by man-made mutations that are caused by man-made disasters, such as accidental radiation exposure.”
Researchers compared the genomes of children to look for an increase in a specific type of genetic variation (called mutation). once again. These are genetic variations that occur randomly in human gametes (sperm and eggs) and can be transmitted to their offspring, but are not observed in parents.
Our research does not support the intergenerational effects of ionizing radiation on human germline DNA.The incidence is comparable to the incidence in the general population
To this end, they analyzed 130 children and 105 mothers or fathers One or both of them experienced Chernobyl-related gonadal radiation and had children after the incident (all children were born 46 weeks to 15 years later, that is, between 1987 and 2002).
“Our research does not support the intergenerational effect of ionizing radiation on human germline DNA. They claim that the incidence is equivalent to the incidence in the general population. Therefore, they believe that this exposure “has little health impact on the offspring, if If yes”.
Chanok told SINC: “For the people living in Fukushima at the time of the accident in 2011, these results are very reassuring.” “The radiation dose in Japan is lower than the dose recorded in Chernobyl.”
The city was directly affected by the nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, so its residents had to be evacuated to protect them from huge radiation. / PNG
Increased thyroid cancer
One of the reasons why Chernobyl survivors were exposed to ionizing radiation for a long time was Radioactive dust, Is the accumulation of radioactive particles in the air deposited on the ground during and after a nuclear explosion.
They can be directly inhaled and reach the lungs, but can also reach the ocean and the ground through rain, so it can pollute crops and pastures, marine animals and water.As we all know, this phenomenon is due to Increased risk of cancer Especially in the area Papillary thyroid carcinomaThis is one of the most important adverse effects observed after the incident.
The energy generated by ionizing radiation breaks the chemical bonds in DNA, leading to different types of damage. However, detailed molecular knowledge of these tumors is still lacking, and there are no definite markers of radiation-induced cancer.
In the second study, the National Institutes of Health (NIH, Because of its English abbreviation), after examining the impact of this radioactive dust on survivors, provided more data about the cancer process.
The author studied thyroid cancer that occurred in 2004. 359 exposed Ionizing radiation that emits radioactive iodine (I-131) when in infancy or in the womb, and 81 untouched individuals Born more than nine months after the accident.
As shown by SINC Lindsay M. MortonThe person in charge of this work said: “After children or fetuses are exposed to radiation, the tumors of patients with papillary thyroid cancer undergo genetic changes. Compared with people, the youngest people exposed to I-131 and higher doses had more DNA breaks.”
Therefore, experts suggest that in these cases, the occurrence of thyroid tumors is caused by the following reasons: DNA double-strand break In the genome: “This break may be an early genetic change after exposure to radiation in the environment, which subsequently allows these cancers to grow.”
The large amount of radioactive material discharged from the damaged reactor severely affected the city of Prípiat. / PNG
Application of these studies
By integrating data from multiple platforms, these data have large sample sizes and detailed figures of proportions. These data supplement the preliminary report on the characteristics of radiation-related human tumors.
The researchers believe that their findings provide a basis for future cancer-induced cancer research, especially those that involve differences in risk based on dose and age. “Our conclusion is Radiation protection and public health“, Morton said.
The best way to prevent radiation-related cancers is to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation even with small doses.
“Because other mutagens may cause DNA double-strand breaks, our results show that Biomar Fort Distinguish radiation-induced tumors from tumors of other causes.Finding such a biomarker may be right Prevention or early diagnosis He added to SINC.
“In addition, in the analysis, we found that there is a linear relationship between dose and DNA double-strand breaks. Experts emphasized that this is consistent with sufficient scientific evidence of DNA damage and cancer risk after exposure to ionizing radiation. “Therefore, the best prevention is related to The approach to tumors is to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation even in small doses. “
L. Morton et al: Radiation-related genomics characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma after Chernobyl accident. science