A study led by researchers from astronomers at the University of Canarias was conducted using the OSIRIS instrument of the world’s largest optical and infrared telescope on La Palma Island. The study found that densely populated clusters of galaxies are approximately Accounted for 12.5 billion. In the initial stage of the universe, light years away.
This Galaxy cluster They are groups of galaxies held together due to gravitational interactions. In order to understand the evolution of these “cities”, scientists searched for structures formed in the early universe. These structures are called primitive clusters of galaxies.
In 2012, an international team of astronomers accurately determined the distance to the Earth Galaxy HDF850.1, Is one of the stars with the highest star formation rate in the observable universe. Unexpectedly, scientists also discovered that this galaxy is located in one of the most studied regions in the sky. It is called the “Hubble Deep Field” (GOODS-North). It is a space that revolves around the history of the universe. Ten proto-galaxies formed in the first billion years. Before the discovery, only a similar primitive group was known.
Now, thanks to OSIRIS instrument,installed at Big Canary Telescope (GTC o GRANTECAN), The research team showed that it was one of the most densely populated regions of the Milky Way in the early universe, and for the first time conducted a detailed analysis of the physical properties of the system.The research was published in the journal Monthly Bulletin of the Royal Astronomical Society.
He explained: “It’s surprising that we found that all the members of the star cluster studied so far, about twelve, are galaxies with normal star formation, and the central galaxy seems to dominate the stars in this structure. Manufacturing.” Rosa Calvi, Was a postdoctoral researcher at IAC and the main author of the article.
Childhood Witnesses of the Local Universe
Recent studies have shown that this structured galaxy cluster is composed of several components or “regions” with different evolutions. Astronomers predict that this structure will gradually become a galaxy cluster similar to Virgo, which is the central area of the supercluster of the same name. The local group of the Milky Way to which the Milky Way belongs is located where the cluster is located.
“We see this city is under construction 12.5 billion years, when. . .when The universe is less than 10% of its current age, So we are witnessing the infancy of the galaxy clusters we usually find in the local universe”, he emphasized Helmut Dannerbauer, IAC researchers and co-author of the new study.
The distance to the studied light source is in full agreement with the prediction based on the previous photometric study conducted by GRANTECAN. Pablo Arrabal HaroIAC researcher, Assistant Secretary-General of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), under the supervision of José Miguel Rodríguez Espinosa, a former IAC researcher, and IAC research Staff and deputy director Casiana Muñoz-Tuñón are co-authors of this study.
Gran Telescopio Canarias, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma Island. /Daniel Lopez/IAC
Arrabal developed a method of selecting galaxies with normal star formation based on luminosity detection, called hard Board (Investigation of high-z absorption of red and dead source), this is one of the main projects of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) executed on the GTC.
The researcher said: “I am very happy to see that the method developed in my doctoral dissertation can well discover and confirm a densely populated region of galaxies in the distant universe.”
The SHARDS program is managed by Pablo Perez Gonzalez,researcher Center for Astrobiology (CAB, CSIC-INTA) The author of the article also pointed out: “It is not easy to accurately measure the formation of these structures, especially at the beginning of the universe. We need excellent data, such as the data taken by the GTC telescope in SHARDS. And the SHARDS Frontier project. These fields make it possible to determine the distance between galaxies and galaxies at the edge of the universe with unprecedented precision.
For its part, Stefan GeierGTC supports astronomers and co-authors of the paper to emphasize that without the extraordinary features of the OSIRIS instrument, coupled with the huge collection area of GRANTECAN, GRANTECAN is the largest optical and infrared telescope in the United States, then this surprising result is impossible. world. “
Rosa Calvi and others. “Explore the existence of rich galactic density at z = 5.2”. Monthly Bulletin of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2021.