With the help of a supercomputer, scientists from the University of Granada and the University of Tubingen (Germany) have discovered a way to generate time crystals. Time crystals are a state of matter with a periodic structure that will change over time. Over and over again. This is a theoretical study based on the phase transition that occurs when strange waves occur in a multi-particle system.
This Time crystal They are a new state proposed by the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2012 Frank Wilczek From the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA). Inside them, atoms repeat patterns over time, which is different from normal crystals (such as salt or diamond) in which their structure repeats in space.
In 2017, American scientists observed through experiments Discrete time crystal (With a clearly defined value), a periodic external force is applied to the ions trapped in the quantum system.
Now from University of Granada (UGR) Tübingen University (Germany) found a way to create Continuous time crystal (The value is within a certain range) from the extreme fluctuations in the multi-particle system.The research was published in the journal Medical letter.
The author proves that certain phase transitions (such as the passage from solid to liquid or gas) occurring in these rare fluctuations of physical systems (such as snow in summer) cause the translational symmetry to spontaneously break over time. His suggestion is that this unusual natural phenomenon can produce time crystals.
Test on PROTEUS supercomputer
At present, this is a theoretical study, but its method has been successfully tested through simulation on a supercomputer. protein A member of the Carlos I Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics of UGR, one of the most powerful institutes in Spain.
Co-author Pablo Hurtado The research from UGR contextualizes the research: “Einstein’s theory of relativity tells us that time is flexible to some extent, and it is inseparable from the entire universe. We call it Time and space. But this unity is partial, because time is still special in many ways. “
He recalled: “Examples abound: we can move back and forth between any two points in space, but we still cannot access the past. Time has an arrow (pointing out where the entropy increases), and space does not. But The symmetry of time also exhibits interesting characteristics.”
In their paper, the scientists proposed a way to construct time crystals that has not been explored so far, which is based on the observation of the spontaneous destruction of the symmetry of time translation in the fluctuations of a multi-particle system.
These are called Dynamic phase change (DPT(Its English abbreviation is) Appearing in the trajectory space refers to the situation where the physical system is adjusted to cause some observable phenomena (such as particle flow) to undergo rare (or impossible) fluctuations.
Using spectrum analysis tools, the researchers clearly proved the relationship between these DPTs and time crystals. Interestingly, these rare events can be made typical by the transformation of particle microdynamics, which can be explained by the original dynamics supplemented by external “smart” fields.
In their research, the research team analyzed the working principle of the field, that is, by filling particles, the particles in the fluid model are pushed back, causing the particles in front to slow down and lose their balance, and undergo a phase change of crystal form when present. The role of the filling field.
The time crystal creation scheme used in the research. /R.Hurtado-Gutiérrez, etc./”Physics Review Letters”
In this way Break time translation symmetryIn addition to the long-temporal sequence, it also shows coherent and robust periodic motion. This makes it possible to take advantage of temporary crystal behavior that was highly unlikely before in a practical way.
The study also discussed how to use colloidal fluids in optical traps in the laboratory and create these time crystals in an external packaging field generated by optical tweezers.
Basic Science and Applied Science
The author emphasizes: “These results are important because, fundamentally, they open up an unexplored path for a better understanding of time and its symmetry, and in practice, they teach us new ways to create time crystals. .”
“They came to the conclusion-this is especially important in areas such as Metrology Used to design more accurate clocks, or Quantum computingHere, time crystals can be used to simulate the ground state or design more powerful quantum computers, rather than the so-called Debonding, And the technical possibilities that follow.”
Ruben Gertado Gutierrez, Federico Carolo, Carlos Perez Espigares and Pablo Gertado. “Establish continuous time crystallization from rare events”. Medical letter, 2020.