Several covid-19 vaccines have been produced just one year after a large-scale study announced a pandemic.These vaccines show a high degree of Effectiveness And’s profile Safety Research that is conducive to research, which makes it authorized by the European Union.
With the widespread use of available vaccines, a pharmacovigilance program has been initiated. Their purpose is to detect possible adverse reactions that have not been observed in clinical trials, and because of their low frequency, these adverse reactions can only be found when the vaccine is used in a large number of people. Certain types of incidents are currently under investigation. Thromboembolism Observed after administration of a viral vector-based vaccine. After the first investigation, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) warned that the risk/benefit balance of these vaccines is still favorable and that use restrictions have not yet been established.
Covid -19 particularly affects the elderly. From the age of 60, the risk increases and increases with age. Existing vaccines make it possible to address the priorities identified in the first phase, which is to reduce the incidence of serious illness and death among the most vulnerable elderly.At the beginning of the second quarter of 2021, it is already possible to observe Initial positive impact Vaccination Residents Special care for the elderly in their institutions.
The research is being carried out in stages: first adolescents, then children between 5 and 11 years old, and finally children under that age
Starting from the second quarter of this year, more vaccine supply will greatly promote vaccination.
Available vaccines have been authorized Over 16 years old (Or 18, depending on the type of vaccine).Now is the time Take a step forward and look back at the child population, Suitable for children and adolescents under the age.
Research on the covid-19 vaccine for children and adolescents has been going on for several months. According to the clear requirements of the EMA, pharmaceutical companies involved in the development of the covid-19 vaccine are interested in evaluating it in the EU, and therefore must consider specific research plans for the pediatric population. This condition develops in a staggered manner, first adolescents aged 12 to 16 (or 17), then boys and girls aged 5 to 11, and finally boys and girls under that age.
Trial in progress
The first is dealing with children between 12 and 16 years old due to epidemiological and other operational reasons. In this age group, adolescents have the highest incidence of the disease and its severe forms. In this population, due to its physiological characteristics, it is expected that the use of known vaccines will follow a pattern of efficacy and safety similar to those observed in adults, without the need to test dose changes and vaccine guidelines.
The test results for minors are reliable because all infections occurred in the placebo group
Almost all known vaccines, including those awaiting final evaluation and final approval by the European Union, are being studied in children and adolescents.More importantly, one of them is a vaccine Suitability Although only a preliminary way of press releases, Spain is still by far the most widely used country, and the results are as encouraging as expected.
according to this Notification of preliminary results, The Comirnaty vaccine (Pfizer & BioNTech) has been tested in 2260 adolescents aged 12-15.Half of them received the vaccine, the other half had only one Placebo -An inactive substance, despite having the same appearance and manner as the vaccine-in addition, the procedure is random and blind to participants and researchers-to ensure that specific biases do not interfere with the interpretation of the results.
Young people participating in the discussion
So far, the results are reliable because all cases of infection occurred in the placebo group, which will produce a temporary number. Vaccine efficacy 100%.s personal profile Reactogenicity -Vaccine reactions, such as pain at the injection site, general malaise, fever, etc.; and Safety Similar to the elderly population that has been studied, that is to say, it is beneficial.
according to They have announced The sponsors of the Comirnaty vaccine have submitted an authorization request to the U.S. drug regulatory agency, and they plan to submit an authorization request before the EMA.
Compared with adults, the research of children and adolescents has some special characteristics, most importantly, the additional requirements for safety and respect Moral requirements, Society and law Protect children’s rights. Parents or legal guardians must obtain their consent after learning the detailed information of the study, its advantages and disadvantages.Young people should also be informed Participate in discussions with your family and research team, To adapt the information to their level of understanding.
Why is it important to vaccinate them
Assuming its effectiveness and high safety, it may be possible to vaccinate children and adolescents, which may have a positive impact on the development of the pandemic for a variety of reasons. First, it can prevent most children from serious illness and death caused by COVID-19. Fortunately, these situations are rare, but it is definitely worth avoiding them.
Second, this will help reduce the incidence of community infections, thereby reducing the spread and exposure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the entire population. Although it is definitely too early to assert, everything shows that vaccinated people will not easily spread the infection to others, or that the frequency of transmission is low and the viral load is low. It may not be possible to eradicate the virus, but it is possible to control its spread in the community, for which reason the percentage of non-immune populations must be minimized.
In Spain, more than 100 covid-19 children require intensive care and 8% of them died
Therefore, by vaccinating children and adolescents, a double goal can be achieved: to protect yourself from children and adolescents. Small but real risk -More than one hundred children Need to be admitted to the intensive care unit 8% of them died from this infection, while others Susceptible population Their social environment includes their grandparents, grandmothers and other family members.
this is The unity component of the vaccine It also has patents for other traditional childhood vaccines, such as rubellaIt aims to avoid the serious situation of fetal involvement when pregnant women are infected. Pneumococcus Among young children and the elderly, or among children Meningeal carcinoma The use of ACWY by young people in both cases increases the benefits of self-protection for the entire population.
Avoid suspension of classes and protect the elderly
Finally, the third reason is that it can be solved school activities Has higher security. Avoid class suspensionAnd usually, the interruption of face-to-face educational activities is a priority.Suspension of classes has an important impact on the development of the school Child developmentThis impact is difficult to measure, but it may limit personal growth and expectations for the overall growth of children and adolescents.In addition, they also cause concern Special needs Certain groups of children have deepened Inequality and discrimination People from less popular families.
Parents, families, children and adolescents themselves should and can ensure that once the covid-19 vaccine is available in this age group, it will be very safe and effective for themselves and will help curb the disease. The tragic impact of the pandemic on the entire population.
Angel Hernandez Merino Is a primary care pediatrician in Madrid. Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics (AEPap). Member of AEP Vaccine Advisory Committee.