The scientific cooperation between the European Particle Physics Laboratory and CMS and ATLAS has obtained new results, showing how the Higgs boson breaks down into two muons, similar to electrons but heavier than particles.Estimated to be only one-fifth Higgs This phenomenon occurs in large LHC accelerators.
They were actually announced at the world’s largest particle physics conference in early August, ICHEP, But today they have personally submitted to European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN), Located near Geneva, Switzerland.
These are the new results recorded by the detector Atlas ÿ Content management system Hadron Collider (Large Hadron Collider),This explains Higgs Boson Split into two meson, Some particles are similar to electrons but heavier.
This phenomenon is extremely rare. According to the results announced on Tuesday, only one out of every 5,000 Higgs bosons produced in the world’s largest particle accelerator, LHC, decays into a pair of muons.
Meson is one of the basic particles of the so-called “second generation” of the Standard Model. This theory describes all the things we see in the universe and the elements that interact with them. This is the first time now. Higgs Interact with this “second generation” particle.
In the model, elementary particles are divided into three generations according to their mass. All the matter we see consists of three first-generation particles: upper and lower quarks (protons and neutrons formed in the nucleus) and electrons, which belong to a type of particle called leptons.
“Second Generation” Particles
The remaining two generations consist of heavier relatives of quarks and leptons. One of them is a muon, which is about 200 times heavier than an electron. The cause of the difference in the mass of these elementary particles is not clear, but the study of the Higgs boson, which was discovered in 2012 through ATLAS and CMS experiments, is crucial to clarify this fact.
Both experiments have observed that the Higgs boson decomposes into very heavy particles, such as W and Z bosons, which creates weak interactions (responsible for the radioactive process), bottom and top quarks, and tau leptons .
Although this is the first time that Higgs interacts with second-generation particles, the results are still inconclusive in statistics.The so-called result Run 3, The third phase of operation of the Large Hadron Collider from 2021 will be able to confirm this collapse mode.
He insisted: “The CMS is well-equipped to measure muons with high precision, which makes this result possible. This is the first evidence of the interaction between the Higgs boson and the second-generation particle.” Roberto Carlin, CMS experiment spokesperson.
He added: “Since we will collect data in future campaigns, we will be able to improve the accuracy of these studies. The data used for this measurement comes from during the second data collection period or run 2 (2016-2018) Conflicts registered in the Large Hadron Collider during the period.”
Spanish Science and Technology in CMS and ATLAS
To detect and measure muons, CMS combines information from its internal tracking detector and external muon detector.One third of the central part and its electronic equipment are built in CIEMAT With the Institute of Physics of Cantabria (IFCA, CSIC-UC).Both also help to identify the system of mesons online And rebuild them Offline Very precise.
Another technique used includes reducing the “background noise” of the measurement, which is achieved through artificial intelligence, with the help of machine learning techniques (such as deep neural networks), which was also developed by CIEMAT.This University of Oviedo And the Autonomous University of Madrid (how is it) As a member of the muon group, he participated in the CMS experiment and analyzed various research channels of the Higgs boson.
He said: “The evidence for the decomposition of the Higgs boson into second-generation particles complements the very successful Run 2 physics program.” Carl Jacobs, Is the spokesperson of the ATLAS experiment.
“The measurement of the properties of the Higgs boson has entered a new stage in accuracy, so we can study abnormal decay; these advances are based on the LHC data set, the excellent efficiency and performance of the detector and the use of new analysis The result of technology,” he said.
Participants in ATLAS are: Institute of Particle Physics (IFIC, CSIC-UV), Institute of High Energy Physics (IFAE), Barcelona Institute of Microelectronics (IMB-CNM-CSIC) and the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM).
Currently, the results obtained are in line with the predictions of the standard model.Will be in operation 3 (2021-2024) and High brightness LHCThis important improvement to the accelerator and its experiments will begin in 2027, and it will reach the necessary statistical significance (5 sigma) to confirm the decay behavior of the Higgs boson in a pair of mesons.
According to scientists, the precise study of these processes will allow exploration of the limitations of the Standard Model itself and the search for new physics beyond the known theories.