What happens in the North Pole will not stop at the North Pole, but will affect the climate of the entire planet. What happened in October of this year was that the Arctic Ocean was too hot to regain the ice cover at the usual rate.
Therefore, as shown in the picture above, the Arctic ice cap has never been smaller at this time of year. Since the data are available, the amount of ice in 2012 (dotted line) is the least, so ice and snow will re-form as usual with the arrival of autumn.
On the other hand, this year (blue line) due to high temperature records in Siberia and other parts of the Arctic, the water is too hot to form ice at the usual rate (gray, (showing the usual average value since 1981).
The season also broke records, with melting rates higher than in 2012 from March to June and certain days in July.
You can refer to interactive graphics and sea ice surface The shell of the National Ice and Snow National Data Center.
In addition, the temperature in the entire Arctic region is still high this month, making the thickness of the remaining ice sheet much smaller than usual, as shown in the chart by Dr. Zachary E. Labe, a researcher at the University of Colorado.
This abnormal phenomenon “the most serious sea ice formation in satellite observations” is due to the fact that Siberia has been at a high temperature since the beginning of this year, and the heat wave has broken records.
He expects ice to form again, although he still remembers that in addition to climate change, the inter-annual changes are large, and the amount of ice in Siberia may exceed the average level of next year. This phenomenon is consistent with the observation of the impact of global warming on the Arctic. . .
Samantha Burgess, deputy director of the European Network’s Copernicus Climate Change Service, explained that the abnormally high temperatures in the Siberian Arctic make the sea surface temperature higher than average, which makes melting ice more difficult. He believes that it is too early to assess the impact of the season on the world, but he warned that “it may have less impact on the marine food web, and its available nutrients are less, and it is very important for ice-based products such as polar bears and walruses. The predominant species also have an impact. “
Belgian glaciologist Xavier Fettweis commented that this situation shows that the state of the Arctic cannot be measured solely from the frozen surface. “We must also take into account the hidden side of the iceberg-the heat in the open water.” This year it must have broken the record, but it is [un dato] Little known”. He believes that considering this factor, this season may be worse than the fate of 2012, and is worried that the situation will worsen next year, leaving a weak ice sheet that will melt faster by 2021.
He also pointed out that as evaporation increases, rainfall increases, although not necessarily in the Arctic.
What happens in the Arctic will not stay in the Arctic, but will affect the global climate
If scientists and experts insist on monitoring the huge changes that are taking place in the Arctic region, it is because the two poles have a fundamental role in regulating the climate balance of the entire planet.
The Arctic is experiencing the effects of climate change at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This is the so-called Arctic amplification. These changes will affect the climate of the entire planet. In addition, the melting of glaciers or permafrost has also accelerated. The frozen soil covers the peaks and grasslands of the two hemispheres and releases greenhouse gases such as methane.
The exact effect of melting is unclear, but there are some direct consequences:
- Telegraph poles are like refrigerators. When there is little ice, they absorb heat instead of reflecting it. As Professor Fettweis pointed out and we are observing this year, this also hinders ice formation.
- Sea-level rise. This is one of the most obvious effects of the melting of the cryosphere.
- The fragility of life in communities and ecosystems. This is the most direct and obvious effect. Over the years, the population of the area had to adapt to the shortage of ice. There are also animals, which have fewer resources for adaptation.
- More rainfall and more destructive storms. Some scientists believe that in addition to producing more evaporation and therefore more water that can be used for precipitation, the disturbance of the Arctic will also cause changes in jets, which will determine the climate of the northern hemisphere.
- Changes in ocean circulation. Melting can change ocean currents, and ocean currents are closely related to the global climate.
- More heat waves. Scientists believe that the imbalance between the ocean and the atmospheric air currents will intensify in winter and produce stronger heat waves in summer.
- Changes in salinity. The lack of ice will change the chemical balance of the ocean and may lead to reduced nutrients or excessive amounts of certain animals or algae.
The MOSAIC mission is the largest Arctic exploration activity ever. It has just returned from the area. One of its main goals is to collect data on the progress of climate change. In the fragile Arctic balance.