A new study analyzed more than 1,000 ancient European human genomes to reconstruct how genetics affects the immune system. The authors found that tuberculosis has become a major factor in mortality in the last 2,000 years of the African continent’s history.
This Coronavirus disease It is the latest infectious disease that has a major impact on human life, but there have been many other infectious diseases before.One New research Reveal now tuberculosis Has influenced European society in recent years 2,000 yearsSpecifically, how does it affect Human genome.
This work, in which use Ancient human DNANot only has an impact on the evolution of the population, but also has important implications for how genetics affects human genetics. immune system.The results are published in the journal American Journal of Human Genetics.
He explained to SINC: “Analysis of genome evolution can help us reconstruct past epidemics that have had a major impact on mortality.” Luis Quintana Mulch, The lead author and Spanish researchers in Pasteur Institute from France. “Humans today are the descendants of those who survived climate change and major epidemics, such as the Black Death, Spanish flu or tuberculosis.”
Quintana-Murci added: “This work uses population genetics to analyze the role of natural selection in our genome.” “So we have described how tuberculosis became the leading cause of death in the last 2000 years of European history.”
The focus of this research is P1104A of model TYK2 – Involving immune function – the first author, Gaspard KernerThe risk of illness increases after being found to be infected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Is the bacteria with the most tuberculosis cases in the world.
Kerner, Imagination Institute He came from the University of Paris and began to collaborate with Quintana-Murci, an expert in evolutionary genomics, to study the genetic determinants of human tuberculosis in the context of evolution and natural selection.
Use from More than 1,000 ancient European human genomes, Experts discovered that the P1104A variant first appeared more than 30,000 years ago.Further analysis showed that the frequency of this variant dropped sharply around 2000, and it was approximately in the current form. Mycobacterium tuberculosis They become very common. This variant has nothing to do with other infectious bacteria or viruses.
“If you have two copies of this variant in your genome and you encounter Mycobacterium tuberculosisKerner said: “You are likely to be sick.” “During the Bronze Age, this variant occurred much more frequently, but we found that in the period associated with the beginning of the European tuberculosis epidemic, people began to make negative choices. “
Application in other infectious diseases
“This risk mutation exists in 2-3% of Europeans, Which means that millions of people are in danger. Fortunately, tuberculosis is not very common in Europe now, but these people can go to countries where tuberculosis is endemic,” Quintana-Mursi emphasized.
“Therefore, this mutation will serve as a prognostic value when people travel through areas plagued by tuberculosis, and we need to be extra careful. Let us not forget about tuberculosis and VIA with malariaSpanish researchers continue to say that they are the three most important “murders” in the world.
This type of research can be complementary to other types of immunological research (such as research conducted in the laboratory). For the author, these tools can be used to study the history and impact of many different genetic variants on many infectious diseases.
“The advantage of this work is that we are using a population genetics method to compile the history of an epidemic. We can use these methods to understand which immune genetic variants have increased the most in the past 10,000 years, which shows that they are the most beneficial. , And which ones reduce the most due to negative selection”, Quintana-Murci concludes. .
Kerner et al.: Ancient human DNA analysis reveals the high burden of tuberculosis among Europeans in the past 2,000 years. American Journal of Human Genetics.